1. Optical Coherence Tomography Characterization of Macular Changes Secondary to Arteriovenous Fistula

    Optical Coherence Tomography Characterization of Macular Changes Secondary to Arteriovenous Fistula

    Arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are abnormal shunts between the arterial and venous vascular systems. These usually produce ocular pain, increased intraocular pressure (IOP), and diplopia. Less frequently, they may cause retinal changes with visual impairment. Our purpose is to illustrate different retinal manifestations of AVF. We report the multimodal imaging study of three cases with retinal changes due to AVF, showing neurosensory retinal detachment, macular oedema, and macular ischemia. In conclusion, AVF may appear with different ophthalmic alterations. While usually increased IOP and diplopia are our main concerns, retinal study is mandatory, since a myriad of morphologic abnormalities might be present.

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