1. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human brain connectome

    Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human brain connectome

    The human brain is composed of approximately 100 billion neurons that ‘communicate’ through an intricate network of axons and dendrites. 1 The difficulty of tracing these 3D neuronal pathways, however, has been a critical barrier for standard histology (the study of microscopic anatomy) over the past 100 years. Indeed, there is still no technology that can be used to acquire microscopic images in undistorted 3D space for mapping human brain connectivity. Currently available techniques for 3D brain mapping include histological staining and polarized light imaging. 2, 3 In these approaches, 2D image slices are obtained, but these must be physically ...

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