1. Optical Coherence Tomography as a Tool for in Vivo Staging and Grading of Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinoma: A Study for Diagnostic Accuracy

    Optical Coherence Tomography as a Tool for in Vivo Staging and Grading of Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinoma: A Study for Diagnostic Accuracy

    Purposes Biopsies and cytology are cornerstones in the diagnosis of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). However, a high rate of non-diagnostic biopsies, tumor upgrading and -staging after nephroureterectomy is observed. In this prospective in vivo study we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of OCT for grading and staging of UTUC Material & Methods Twenty-six patients underwent diagnostic URS including biopsies and OCT imaging, followed by nephroureterectomy or segmental ureter resection. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value of UTUC grading and staging by OCT were evaluated according to the STARD initiative and second stage (2a and 2b ...

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