Background Evaluation of lymph node (LN) status is an important factor for detecting metastasis and thereby staging breast cancer. Currently utilized clinical techniques involve the surgical disruption and resection of lymphatic structure, whether nodes or axillary contents, for histological examination. While reasonably effective at detection of macrometastasis , the majority of the resected lymph nodes are histologically negative. Improvements need to be made to better detect micrometastasis , minimize or eliminate lymphatic disruption complications, and provide immediate and accurate intraoperative feedback for in vivo cancer staging to better guide surgery. Methods We evaluated the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT), a high-resolution ...