1. In vivo real-time imaging of airway dynamics during bronchial challenge test

    In vivo real-time imaging of airway dynamics during bronchial challenge test

    Background and Objective Asthmatic patients exhibit airway hyper-responsiveness, which induces bronchoconstriction and results in a ventilation defect. The bronchial challenge test using methacholine is a useful way to measure airway hyper-responsiveness with airway constriction. Anatomical optical coherence tomography has been used to image airway hyper-responsiveness of medium sized bronchus with the aid of an endoscopic probe. Recently, a thoracic window was reported that allows direct visualization of terminal airway such as alveolus. A multi-scale integrated airway dynamics was assessed in this study. We imaged in vivo changes in the right intermedius bronchus and alveolar structure during the bronchial challenge test ...

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