1. Microscale imaging of cilia-driven fluid flow

    Microscale imaging of cilia-driven fluid flow

    Cilia-driven fluid flow is important for multiple processes in the body, including respiratory mucus clearance, gamete transport in the oviduct, right–left patterning in the embryonic node, and cerebrospinal fluid circulation. Multiple imaging techniques have been applied toward quantifying ciliary flow. Here, we review common velocimetry methods of quantifying fluid flow. We then discuss four important optical modalities, including light microscopy, epifluorescence, confocal microscopy, and optical coherence tomography, that have been used to investigate cilia-driven flow.

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