1. Four-dimensional visualization of subpleural alveolar dynamics in vivo during uninterrupted mechanical ventilation of living swine

    Four-dimensional visualization of subpleural alveolar dynamics in vivo during uninterrupted mechanical ventilation of living swine

    Pulmonary alveoli have been studied for many years, yet no unifying hypothesis exists for their dynamic mechanics during respiration due to their miniature size (100-300 μm dimater in humans) and constant motion, which prevent standard imaging techniques from visualizing four-dimensional dynamics of individual alveoli in vivo . Here we report a new platform to image the first layer of air-filled subpleural alveoli through the use of a lightweight optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) probe that can be placed upon the pleura to move with the lung over the complete range of respiratory motion. This device enables in-vivo acquisition of four-dimensional microscopic ...

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