1. Split-Frame Gimbaled Two-Dimensional MEMS Scanner for Miniature Dual-Axis Confocal Microendoscopes Fabricated by Front-Side Processing

    Split-Frame Gimbaled Two-Dimensional MEMS Scanner for Miniature Dual-Axis Confocal Microendoscopes Fabricated by Front-Side Processing

    In this paper, we introduce a 2-D microelectromechanical systems scanner for 3.2-mm-diameter dual-axis confocal microendoscopes, fabricated exclusively by front-side processing. Compared to conventional bulk micromachining that incorporates back-side etching, the front-side process is simple and thus enables high device yield. By eliminating the back-side etch window, the process yields compact and robust structures that facilitate handling and packaging. An important component of our front-side fabrication is a low-power deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) process that avoids the heating problems associated with standard DRIE. Reducing the RF etch coil power from 2400 to 1500 W leads to elimination of the ...

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