1. Quantitative measurement of attenuation coefficients of bladder biopsies using optical coherence tomography for grading urothelial carcinoma of the bladder

    Quantitative measurement of attenuation coefficients of bladder biopsies using optical coherence tomography for grading urothelial carcinoma of the bladder
    Real-time grading of bladder urothelial carcinoma (UC) is clinically important, but the current standard for grading (histopathology) cannot provide this information. Based on optical coherence tomography (OCT)-measured optical attenuation (µt), the grade of bladder UC could potentially be assessed in real time. We evaluate ex vivo whether µt differs between different grades of UC and benign bladder tissue. Human bladder tissue specimens are examined ex vivo by 850-nm OCT using dynamic focusing. Three observers independently determine the µt from the OCT images, and three pathologists independently review the corresponding histology slides. For both methods, a consensus diagnosis is made ...
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