Purpose: To investigate the relation between axial length (AL) and ocular parameters. Methods: Measurements of ocular biometric parameters were performed with an optical biometer, pachymeter, optical coherence tomography, and an automatic refractometer. AL, refractive error (RE), central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth (ACD), corneal curvature (CC), white-to-white distance (WWD), and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness were measured. AL was evaluated in relation to ocular parameters. The Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was used to statistically evaluate each scattergram. Results: With elongation of the AL, the mean RE (r = -0.790, p < 0.001), CC (r = -0.444, p < 0.001), and RNFL thickness (r = -0.306, p < 0.001) all decreased, while the mean ACD (r = 0.506, p < 0.001) and WWD (r = 0.279, p < 0.001) increased. Conclusions: In shorter eyes, there was a tendency toward hyperopia, a steeper cornea, and a thicker RNFL, and in longer eyes toward myopia, a flatter cornea, and a thinner RNFL.