1. Diagnosis of Bladder Cancer With Microelectromechanical Systems-based Cystoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography

    Objectives To examine the utility and potential limitations of microelectromechanical systems-based spectral-domain cystoscopic optical coherence tomography (COCT) so as to improve the diagnosis of early bladder cancer. Methods An optical coherence tomography catheter was integrated into the single instrument channel of a 22F cystoscope to permit white-light-guided COCT over a large field of view (4.6 mm wide and 2.1 mm deep per scan at 8 frames/s) and 10-μm resolution. Intraoperative COCT diagnosis was performed in 56 patients, with a total of 110 lesions examined and compared with biopsied histology. Results The overall sensitivity of COCT (94%) was ...
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