1. Whey Recovery Using Nanofiltration-like Forward Osmosis: Optical Coherence Tomography Based Approach to Understanding Fouling Behavior

    Whey Recovery Using Nanofiltration-like Forward Osmosis: Optical Coherence Tomography Based Approach to Understanding Fouling Behavior

    Recovering nourishing compounds is of essential significance in the treatment of whey wastewater. It is desirable to enhance the efficiency of whey recovery by forward osmosis (FO) with a nanofiltration (NF)-like membrane, though there is a fundamental challenge standing in the way of investigating the harmful effects of membrane fouling. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was explored to in situ characterize the fouling behavior in the NF-like FO process for whey recovery. The scientific focus was on the use of a divalent salt as the draw solute, which was required to maintain the transmembrane osmotic pressure difference but could have ...

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