1. Optical coherence tomography angiography of conjunctival and episcleral vessels in carotid cavernous fistula

    Optical coherence tomography angiography of conjunctival and episcleral vessels in carotid cavernous fistula

    A 44-year-old man, who had craniofacial trauma due to a motorcycle accident 1 month ago and cerebral arteriography that revealed a right carotid-cavernous fistula, presented with unilateral proptosis and diplopia. On ocular examination, the best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes. In the right eye, examination revealed restricted ocular motility, mild ptosis, 2-mm proptosis, dilation of the conjunctival and episcleral vessels in a medusa’s head ( Fig. 1A ). Intraocular pressure was 30 mmHg in the right eye. Dilated fundus examination showed dilated retinal veins but no venous stasis retinopathy, intraretinal hemorrhages, central retinal vein occlusion, choroidal folds, choroidal ...

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