1. Plasmonic gold nanostar-enhanced multimodal photoacoustic microscopy and optical coherence tomography molecular imaging to evaluate choroidal neovascularization

    Plasmonic gold nanostar-enhanced multimodal photoacoustic microscopy and optical coherence tomography molecular imaging to evaluate choroidal neovascularization

    While photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) allow visualization of the retinal microvasculature, distinguishing early neovascularization from adjacent vessels remains challenging. Herein, gold nanostars (GNS) functionalized with RGD peptide were utilized as multimodality contrast agents for both PAM and OCT. GNS have great absorption and scattering characteristics in the near-infrared region where most vasculature and tissue generates less intrinsic photoacoustic signal while having a small size, excellent biocompatibility in vivo, and great photostability under nanosecond pulsed laser illumination. This enabled visualization and differentiation of individual microvasculature in vivo using multimodal PAM and OCT imaging. Detailed three-dimensional distribution of ...

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