1. All Articles

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    1. Imaging of the Temporal Raphe with Optical Coherence Tomography

      Imaging of the Temporal Raphe with Optical Coherence Tomography

      There has been considerable debate about the arrangement and composition of the temporal raphe in the human retina. In postmortem studies, Vrabec 1 showed that axons of retinal ganglion cells temporal to the fovea are forced to take an arched course above and below the papillomacular bundle and that the temporal raphe generally represents a watershed midline. However, there is scarce published literature on the relationship between the orientation of the papillomacular bundle and the temporal raphe.

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    2. Periprocedural Myocardial Injury and Right Bundle Branch Block during Coronary Optical Coherence Tomography in an Acute Coronary Syndrome Patient with Severe Coronary Ectasia

      Periprocedural Myocardial Injury and Right Bundle Branch Block during Coronary Optical Coherence Tomography in an Acute Coronary Syndrome Patient with Severe Coronary Ectasia

      A 66-year-old man was referred for emergent coronary angiography (CAG) due to unstable angina with typical chest pain without elevation of cardiac enzymes. He had several coronary risk factors including dyslipidemia, hypertension, and smoking. He had a history of endovascular aortic repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm 5 months ago. Emergent CAG showed no significant stenosis; however, there was a filling defect at the left anterior descending artery (LAD) with flow limitation even though the previous CAG revealed no flow limitation.

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    3. Real-time dispersion-compensated image reconstruction for compressive sensing spectral domain optical coherence tomography

      Real-time dispersion-compensated image reconstruction for compressive sensing spectral domain optical coherence tomography

      In this work, we propose a novel dispersion compensation method that enables real-time compressive sensing (CS) spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) image reconstruction. We show that dispersion compensation can be incorporated into CS SD OCT by multiplying the dispersion-correcting terms by the undersampled spectral data before CS reconstruction. High-quality SD OCT imaging with dispersion compensation was demonstrated at a speed in excess of 70 frames per s using 40% of the spectral measurements required by the well-known Shannon/Nyquist theory. The data processing and image display were performed on a conventional workstation having three graphics processing units.

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    4. Dual modality optical coherence and whole-body photoacoustic tomography imaging of chick embryos in multiple development stages

      Dual modality optical coherence and whole-body photoacoustic tomography imaging of chick embryos in multiple development stages

      Chick embryos are an important animal model for biomedical studies. The visualization of chick embryos, however, is limited mostly to postmortem sectional imaging methods. In this work, we present a dual modality optical imaging system that combines swept-source optical coherence tomography and whole-body photoacoustic tomography, and apply it to image chick embryos at three different development stages. The explanted chick embryos were imaged in toto with complementary contrast from both optical scattering and optical absorption. The results serve as a prelude to the use of the dual modality system in longitudinal whole-body monitoring of chick embryos in ovo .

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    5. Fully automated side branch detection in intravascular optical coherence tomography pullback runs

      Fully automated side branch detection in intravascular optical coherence tomography pullback runs

      Side branches in the atherosclerotic lesion region are important as they highly influence the treatment strategy selection and optimization. Moreover, they are reliable landmarks for image registration. By providing high resolution delineation of coronary morphology, intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) has been increasingly used for side branch analysis. This paper presents a fully automated method to detect side branches in IVOCT images, which relies on precise segmentation of the imaging catheter, the protective sheath, the guide wire and the lumen. 25 in-vivo data sets were used for validation. The intraclass correlation coefficient between the algorithmic results and manual delineations for ...

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    6. Ophthalmic imaging

      Ophthalmic imaging

      Introduction or background The last two decades have seen a revolution in ophthalmic imaging. In this review we present an overview of the breadth of ophthalmic imaging modalities in use today and describe how the role of ophthalmic imaging has changed from documenting abnormalities visible on clinical examination to the detection of clinically silent abnormalities which can lead to an earlier and more precise diagnosis. Sources of data This review is based on published literature in the fields of ophthalmic imaging and with focus on most commonly used imaging modalities. Areas of agreement New imaging techniques enable non-invasive evaluation of ...

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    7. Dual-Angle Protocol for Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography to Improve Retinal Blood Flow Measurement

      Dual-Angle Protocol for Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography to Improve Retinal Blood Flow Measurement

      Purpose: To compare the performance of two different multiple-scan protocols for total retinal blood flow (TRBF) measurement using Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: In the “single-angle” protocol, five Doppler scans were acquired at a single beam angle. In the “dual-angle” protocol, three scans were obtained with the OCT beam passing through the supranasal portion of the pupil and three through the infranasal portion. The data were analyzed using a custom software termed “Doppler OCT of Retinal Circulation” (DOCTORC) to generate TRBF measurements. In DOCTORC, the measurement of a vein was considered unreliable if the Doppler angle was less than ...

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    8. Trabecular-Iris Circumference Volume in Open Angle Eyes Using Swept-Source Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      Trabecular-Iris Circumference Volume in Open Angle Eyes Using Swept-Source Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose . To introduce a new anterior segment optical coherence tomography parameter, trabecular-iris circumference volume (TICV), which measures the integrated volume of the peripheral angle, and establish a reference range in normal, open angle eyes. Methods . One eye of each participant with open angles and a normal anterior segment was imaged using 3D mode by the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey, Nagoya, Japan). Trabecular-iris space area (TISA) and TICV at 500 and 750  µ m were calculated. Analysis of covariance was performed to examine the effect of age and its interaction with spherical equivalent. Results . The study included 100 participants with a mean age ...

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    9. Different Findings in a Calcified Nodule Between Histology and Intravascular Imaging Such as Intravascular Ultrasound, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Coronary Angioscopy

      Different Findings in a Calcified Nodule Between Histology and Intravascular Imaging Such as Intravascular Ultrasound, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Coronary Angioscopy

      An 89-year-old woman who suffered a stroke and congestive heart failure was admitted to our hospital. She died of heart failure and autopsy was performed. Coronary arteries were removed from the heart and used for ex vivo imaging of intravascular ultrasound ([IVUS]; Atlantis, Boston Scientific Corporation, Natick, Massachusetts), optical coherence tomography (LightLab imaging Inc., Westford, Massachusetts), and coronary angioscopy (FiberTech, Tokyo, Japan) within 6 h after death before fixation with 10% buffered formalin. IVUS illustrated a convex lesion with superficial hyperechoic signal accompanied by acoustic shadowing at the left anterior descending artery (Figure 1 , arrows). Optical coherence tomography demonstrated an ...

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    10. The Latest on Optical Coherence Tomography

      The Latest on Optical Coherence Tomography

      Beginning almost 25 years ago, optical coherence tomography (OCT) began its journey into the mainstream of ophthalmology.  Initially developed for retinal an vitro-retinal interface disease and glaucoma, this revolutionary technology has proven to ultimately have broader applications in neuro-ophthalmology and neurology, 2 specialties in which a better understating of OCT has led to more widespread investigation and clinical use.

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    11. Clinical trials to clinical use: using vision as a model for multiple sclerosis and beyond

      Clinical trials to clinical use: using vision as a model for multiple sclerosis and beyond

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has made possible the structure–function correlations that uniquely characterize the afferent visual pathway as a model for understanding multiple sclerosis (MS) and for developing new treatments. During the past decade, OCT measures of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer (GCL + IPL) thickness have evolved from being a means to validate visual function tests, such as low-contrast letter acuity, to provide a window on the axonal and neuronal loss that are now widely recognized as contributors to permanent visual dysfunction in MS. Although acute optic neuritis (ON) leads to thinning of ...

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    12. Optical Coherence Tomography in Papilledema: What Am I Missing?

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Papilledema: What Am I Missing?

      Background: Grading of papilledema severity is subjective and based on monocular fundus features of the optic nerve. Interobserver agreement on grading the severity of papilledema is poor among expert observers, even using well-defined criteria such as the Frisen scale, which is a non-continuous ordinal scale of grading. Furthermore, non-expert clinicians often find it difficult to properly view and interpret features of the optic nerve using ophthalmoscopy, which can lead to failure to diagnose papilledema in non-ophthalmologic care settings. This may delay treatment, which can result in vision loss. Distinguishing papilledema from pseudopapilledema can also be difficult when surface drusen are ...

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    13. Optical Coherence Tomography Technologies: Which Machine Do You Want to Own?

      Optical Coherence Tomography Technologies: Which Machine Do You Want to Own?

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has evolved over the past decade to become one of the most important ancillary tests in ophthalmic practice. This noninvasive ocular imaging technique provides high-resolution, cross-sectional images of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), macular region, ganglion cell layer, and optic nerve head. With OCT, we can learn much about axonal–neuronal integrity in the anterior aspect of the afferent visual pathway and gain insights about mechanisms of brain injury in various central nervous system disorders.

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    14. Sensitivity and Specificity of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Detecting Idiopathic Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy

      Sensitivity and Specificity of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Detecting Idiopathic Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy

      Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) compared to indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) in detecting idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) and in differentiating between PCV and occult choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Design Retrospective observational case control study. Methods SD-OCTs of 51 eyes of 44 consecutive patients who presented with one or more pigment epithelial detachments (PEDs) due to either PCV or occult CNV were retrospectively reviewed by a grader masked to the final diagnosis. A qualitative analysis based on the following tomographic findings was performed: sharp PED peak, PED notch, hypo-reflective lumen within hyper-reflective lesions adherent to ...

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    15. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) to reveal vascular lesions after renal nerve ablation using a novel water-cooled, open-irrigated helical catheter approach

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) to reveal vascular lesions after renal nerve ablation using a novel water-cooled, open-irrigated helical catheter approach

      Catheter-based renal denervation (RDN) has been introduced for the treatment of resistant hypertension. During the RDN ablation procedure, transmural lesions are delivered along the walls of the renal arteries to disrupt the sympathetic nerve network located within the arterial adventitia [1]. In an animal model using swine which underwent RDN, no vascular lesions were found at 6-month follow-up despite diffuse injury of the vessel wall in the acute phase [2]. However, first studies in humans using optical coherence tomography (OCT) have demonstrated that diffuse renal artery constriction and local tissue damage may occur at the ablation site, with edema and ...

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    16. Noninvasive Esophageal Cancer Imaging 2014 R&D 100 Winner

      Noninvasive Esophageal Cancer Imaging 2014 R&D 100 Winner

      2014 R&D 100 Winner There are two forms of esophageal cancer: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Adenocarcinoma is increasing at a rate greater than all other cancers in the U.S. In fact, the American Cancer Society estimated that in 2013, nearly 18,000 new cases of esophageal cancer cases will be diagnosed and more than 15,000 people will die from the condition. Currently, imaging and screening practices of esophageal tissue are time consuming and costly with questionable effectiveness. For the patient, this process is also invasive. However, NinePoint Medical and Farm Design have developed a solution, the ...

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    17. Histogram flow mapping with optical coherence tomography for in vivo skin angiography of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

      Histogram flow mapping with optical coherence tomography for in vivo skin angiography of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

      Speckle statistics of flowing scatterers have been well documented in the literature. Speckle variance optical coherence tomography exploits the large variance values of intensity changes in time caused mainly by the random backscattering of light resulting from translational activity of red blood cells to map out the microvascular networks. A method to map out the microvasculature malformation of skin based on the time-domain histograms of individual pixels is presented with results obtained from both normal skin and skin containing vascular malformation. Results demonstrated that this method can potentially map out deeper blood vessels and enhance the visualization of microvasculature in ...

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    18. Optical coherence tomography study of healing characteristics of paclitaxel-eluting balloons vs. everolimus-eluting stents for in-stent restenosis: the SEDUCE (Safety and Efficacy of a Drug elUting balloon in Coronary artery rEstenosis) randomised clinica

      Optical coherence tomography study of healing characteristics of paclitaxel-eluting balloons vs. everolimus-eluting stents for in-stent restenosis: the SEDUCE (Safety and Efficacy of a Drug elUting balloon in Coronary artery rEstenosis) randomised clinica

      Aims: Little is known about the respective healing responses and clinical efficacy and safety of drug-eluting balloons (DEB) and the second generation of drug-eluting stents (DES) when used to treat in-stent restenosis (ISR). In this study, we set out to compare prospectively the healing characteristics, as assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT), of DEB versus DES after treatment of ISR in bare metal stents (BMS). Methods and results: Fifty patients with BMS ISR were randomised to treatment with a paclitaxel-eluting balloon vs. an everolimus-eluting stent (EES). The primary endpoint was the percentage of uncovered struts, assessed with OCT at nine ...

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    19. Comparing Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and Standard Automated Perimetry to Diagnose Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy

      Comparing Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and Standard Automated Perimetry to Diagnose Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy

      Purpose: To compare the abilities of standard automated perimetry (SAP) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) in diagnosing eyes with glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON). Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 280 eyes of 175 subjects referred to tertiary eye care center by general ophthalmologists for a glaucoma evaluation underwent retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell complex (GCC) imaging with SDOCT. All subjects had at least 2 reliable and repeatable SAP. Two glaucoma experts masked to clinical and SAP results classified the optic nerves into GON and nonglaucomatous groups based on digital optic disc photographs. Ability of SDOCT parameters and ...

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      Mentions: Harsha L. Rao
    20. Three-dimensional optical coherence micro-elastography of skeletal muscle tissue

      Three-dimensional optical coherence micro-elastography of skeletal muscle tissue

      In many muscle pathologies, impairment of skeletal muscle function is closely linked to changes in the mechanical properties of the muscle constituents. Optical coherence micro-elastography (OCME) uses optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of tissue under a quasi-static, compressive mechanical load to map variations in tissue mechanical properties on the micro-scale. We present the first study of OCME on skeletal muscle tissue. We show that this technique can resolve features of muscle tissue including fibers, fascicles and tendon, and can also detect necrotic lesions in skeletal muscle from the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. In many instances, OCME provides ...

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    21. Optical Coherence Tomography of a Cystic Retinal Tuft

      Optical Coherence Tomography of a Cystic Retinal Tuft

      Cystic retinal tuft (CRT) is a developmental vitreoretinal abnormality found in 5% of autopsy eyes. Clinical examination reveals a focal, elevated gliotic lesion in the peripheral retina associated with vitreous traction (Figure, A and B). Histopathological analysis demonstrates a dome-shaped area with internal microcysts, glial cell proliferation, outer retinal degeneration, and photoreceptor loss.

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    22. A method for monitoring enamel erosion using laser irradiated surfaces and optical coherence tomography

      A method for monitoring enamel erosion using laser irradiated surfaces and optical coherence tomography

      Introduction Since optical coherence tomography (OCT) is well suited for measuring small dimensional changes on tooth surfaces, OCT has great potential for monitoring tooth erosion. Previous studies have shown that enamel areas ablated by a carbon dioxide laser manifested lower rates of erosion compared to the non-ablated areas. The purpose of this study was to develop a model to monitor erosion in vitro that could potentially be used in vivo . Methods Thirteen bovine enamel blocks were used in this in vitro study. Each 10 mm × 2 mm block was partitioned into five regions, the central region was unprotected, the adjacent ...

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    23. Optical coherence tomography demonstrating macular retinal nerve fiber thinning in advanced optic disc drusen

      Optical coherence tomography demonstrating macular retinal nerve fiber thinning in advanced optic disc drusen

      Optic disc drusen (ODD) are extracellular proteinaceous excrescences in the optic nerve head. They enlarge over time and can cause damage to nerve fibers with resulting loss of visual field. The authors report a case of advanced ODD in which macular optical coherence tomography demonstrated retinal nerve fiber thinning. A single case report of a 42-year-old woman with known ODD presented to the eye clinic with worsening field of vision which was impacting on her daily life. The patient was subject to full ophthalmic examination as well as Goldmann visual field testing, optic disc photography and optical coherence tomography (OCT ...

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    24. University of Washington Received a 2014 NIH Grant for Needle Biopsy Preservation and Preparation for Rapid 3D Pathology of Pancreas

      University of Washington Received a 2014 NIH Grant for Needle Biopsy Preservation and Preparation for Rapid 3D Pathology of Pancreas

      University of Washington Received a 2014 NIH Grant For $232,550 for Needle Biopsy Preservation and Preparation for Rapid 3D Pathology of Pancreas. The principal investigator is Eric Seibel. The program began in 2014 and ends in 2017. Below is a summary of the proposed work. There are over three million needle biopsies performed every year in the USA, typically for the diagnosis of breast, prostate, thyroid, lung, liver, and pancreatic cancers. Because needle biopsies are less invasive than surgical biopsies, they are much more cost-effective. However, a major limitation for all needle biopsies are that the pathologist or cytologist ...

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