1. All Articles

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    1. Variable underlying morphology of culprit plaques associated with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: an optical coherence tomography analysis from the SMART trial

      Variable underlying morphology of culprit plaques associated with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: an optical coherence tomography analysis from the SMART trial

      Aims The objective was to assess in vivo culprit lesion morphologies that caused ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods and results Culprit lesions in 80 patients presenting within 6 h of STEMI onset from the CompariSon of Manual Aspiration with Rheolytic Thrombectomy in patients undergoing primary PCI (SMART) trial were evaluated. Underlying morphology of 64 culprit lesions was identifiable by OCT and included 37 lesions with plaque rupture, 25 lesions without plaque rupture, and 2 lesions with calcified nodules. Patients with plaque rupture tended to be younger (64 ± 12 versus 70 ± 10 years, P = 0 ...

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    2. Comparison of optical coherence tomography and intravascular ultrasound for evaluation of coronary lipid-rich atherosclerotic plaque progression and regression

      Comparison of optical coherence tomography and intravascular ultrasound for evaluation of coronary lipid-rich atherosclerotic plaque progression and regression

      Aims Compared with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), optical coherence tomography (OCT) has relative merits and demerits for detecting plaque characteristics. It remains unknown whether the IVUS and OCT evaluations of plaque progression/regression are consistent. We sought to analyse the correlations between IVUS and OCT evaluations of plaques at single time points, and compare temporal changes in the IVUS and OCT data. Methods and results Eighty-eight lipid-rich plaques from 65 patients with coronary artery disease were analysed with IVUS and OCT at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Fibrous cap thickness on OCT was negatively correlated with total atheroma volume on IVUS ( r ...

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    3. Central corneal thickness determination in corneal edema using ultrasound pachymetry, a Scheimpflug camera, and anterior segment OCT

      Central corneal thickness determination in corneal edema using ultrasound pachymetry, a Scheimpflug camera, and anterior segment OCT

      Purpose The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of post-surgical corneal edema on the reliability and reproducibility of central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements by a Scheimpflug camera (Pentacam), ultrasound pachymetry (USP), and anterior-segment spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Methods Thirty-two patients planned for cataract surgery ( n  = 16) or vitrectomy ( n  =  6) were included in a prospective study. The non-surgery eye was used as control. Two investigators acquired two measurements each, with the Pentacam (Oculus, Germany) and the AS-OCT (Heidelberg Engineering, Germany) in a randomized order, followed by USP (Tomey SP-100, Germany). CCT was evaluated using the apex ...

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    4. On the horizon: Optical imaging for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

      On the horizon: Optical imaging for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

      Background : Surgical resection with negative margins remains the standard of care for high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). However, surgical management is often limited by poor intraoperative tumor visualization and inability to detect occult nodal metastasis. The inability to intraoperatively detect microscopic disease can lead to additional surgery, tumor recurrence, and decreased survival. Methods : A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify studies incorporating optical imaging technology in the management of cSCC (1/1/2000-11/1/2014). Results : Several innovative optical imaging techniques, Raman spectroscopy, confocal microscopy, and fluorescence imaging, have been developed for intraoperative surgical guidance. Fifty-seven studies review ...

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    5. Detecting signs of retinal leakage in exudative AMD using Cirrus OCT versus SL SCAN-1, a novel integrated FD-OCT into a common slit lamp

      Detecting signs of retinal leakage in exudative AMD using Cirrus OCT versus SL SCAN-1, a novel integrated FD-OCT into a common slit lamp

      Purpose The purpose is to evaluate the interdevice and interobserver agreements between the SL SCAN-1 (a FD-OCT integrated into a common slit lamp) and a standard stand-alone FD-OCT device (the Cirrus ) with regard to the presence or absence of signs of leakage in the retina in patients with exudative AMD and treated with anti- VEGF . Methods Fifty-six patients, known to have exudative AMD and under treatment with anti- VEGF agents, were included. During a regular follow-up, OCT scans were made with the Cirrus (macular-cube pattern) and the SL SCAN-1 (radial-scan pattern). All scans were graded by two medical retina specialists ...

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    6. Feature Of The Week 4/26/2015: Optical Teardown of a Kindle Paperwhite Display by OCT

      Feature Of The Week 4/26/2015: Optical Teardown of a Kindle Paperwhite Display by OCT

      The Amazon Kindle Paperwhite is an advanced electronic book reader that features a black and white electrophoretic display as well as capacitive multitouch screen capability and an internal lightguide with an optical scattering layer to provide uniform, white light illumination. Teardowns, where a new electronic gadget is disassembled and photographed are commonly found on technically oriented web sites. Here we perform an “optical teardown” of the first generation Kindle Paperwhite display by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). All the display layers can be imaged by OCT as well as the thin film transistor array on the back side for driving the ...

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    7. Optical coherence tomography: guided primary percutaneous coronary intervention in acute myocardial infarction. A bridge too far?

      Optical coherence tomography: guided primary percutaneous coronary intervention in acute myocardial infarction. A bridge too far?

      Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with a certain risk of post-procedural ischemic complications. Therefore, stent implantation technique in the acute myocardial infarction settings should be optimal to improve short- and long-term clinical outcomes. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a light-based imaging modality with an excellent resolution that enables in vivo visualization of the coronary artery structures reported only by the pathohistological studies. Consequently, OCT should help the operator in decision-making throughout the whole primary PCI procedure. OCT seems particularly useful in evaluating culprit lesions, assessing thrombus burden, selecting a proper stent type and size, optimizing the post-implantation result ...

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      Mentions: Dariusz Dudek
    8. Clinical assessment of retinal changes by spectral-domain OCT

      Clinical assessment of retinal changes by spectral-domain OCT

      To evaluate optical coherence tomography changes in patients with retinal thinning at the posterior pole. In this cross-sectional and retrospective study, 648 files were reviewed, and 67 patients were selected. Optical coherence tomography images that showed an area with a retinal thickness reduction at the macular region by using the Asymmetry Analysis Map in Heidelberg Spectralis were selected. The presence of hemisphere asymmetry in the same eye and asymmetry between the paired eyes were calculated and used for the analysis. Retinal thickness was measured in 3 different retinal areas (squares): (1) the area (square) involved by the pathology (IA), (2 ...

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    9. Complete 360° circumferential gonioscopic optical coherence tomography imaging of the iridocorneal angle

      Complete 360° circumferential gonioscopic optical coherence tomography imaging of the iridocorneal angle

      Clinically, gonioscopy is used to provide en face views of the ocular angle. The angle has been imaged with optical coherence tomography (OCT) through the corneoscleral limbus but is currently unable to image the angle from within the ocular anterior chamber. We developed a novel gonioscopic OCT system that images the angle circumferentially from inside the eye through a custom, radially symmetric, gonioscopic contact lens. We present, to our knowledge, the first 360° circumferential volumes (two normal subjects, two subjects with pathology) of peripheral iris and iridocorneal angle structures obtained via an internal approach not typically available in the clinic.

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    10. Confocal Adaptive Optics Imaging of Peripapillary Nerve Fiber Bundles: Implications for Glaucomatous Damage Seen on Circumpapillary OCT Scans

      Confocal Adaptive Optics Imaging of Peripapillary Nerve Fiber Bundles: Implications for Glaucomatous Damage Seen on Circumpapillary OCT Scans

      Purpose: To improve our understanding of glaucomatous damage as seen on circumpapillary disc scans obtained with frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (fdOCT), fdOCT scans were compared to images of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber (RNF) bundles obtained with an adaptive optics-scanning light ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO). Methods: The AO-SLO images and fdOCT scans were obtained on 6 eyes of 6 patients with deep arcuate defects (5 points ≤−15 db) on 10-2 visual fields. The AO-SLO images were montaged and aligned with the fdOCT images to compare the RNF bundles seen with AO-SLO to the RNF layer thickness measured with fdOCT. Results: All 6 ...

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    11. The diagnostic accuracy of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography for neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a comparison with fundus fluorescein angiography

      The diagnostic accuracy of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography for neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a comparison with fundus fluorescein angiography

      P urpose To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD): a comparison against fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA). Methods A retrospective review of SD-OCT, colour fundus photographs (FP), and FFA of 411 consecutive patients referred to a rapid access Macular Clinic over a 4-year period was performed. FFA images were reviewed nonstereoscopically. SD-OCT images were acquired using the Topcon 3D OCT-1000 instrument. All FFA and OCT images were graded by at least two ophthalmologists independently. Side-by-side grading took place with immediate open discussion and adjudication. If there was disagreement between the two ...

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    12. A case of acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy: follow-up and wide-field spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

      A case of acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy: follow-up and wide-field spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

      To present a case of an HIV-positive patient with acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy (AEPVM) and evaluate the presence of specific spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) findings. Case report. We reviewed the AEPVM cases reported in the literature and compared those to our patient to determine if there is a correspondence between the etiology that leads to the onset of AEPVM and clinical and SD-OCT findings. Acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy is a disease that involves the outer retinal layers with lipofuscin deposits and serous detachment of the neuroepithelium with or without intraretinal cysts. Not much is known about the ...

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    13. Functional optical coherence tomography enables in vivo physiological assessment of retinal rod and cone photoreceptors

      Functional optical coherence tomography enables in vivo physiological assessment of retinal rod and cone photoreceptors

      Transient intrinsic optical signal (IOS) changes have been observed in retinal photoreceptors, suggesting a unique biomarker for eye disease detection. However, clinical deployment of IOS imaging is challenging due to unclear IOS sources and limited signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Here, by developing high spatiotemporal resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) and applying an adaptive algorithm for IOS processing, we were able to record robust IOSs from single-pass measurements. Transient IOSs, which might reflect an early stage of light phototransduction, are consistently observed in the photoreceptor outer segment almost immediately (<4 ms) after retinal stimulation. Comparative studies of dark- and light-adapted retinas have ...

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    14. In-vivo mapping of drusen by fundus autofluorescence and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography imaging

      In-vivo mapping of drusen by fundus autofluorescence and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography imaging

      Purpose To determine fundus autofluorescence (FAF) signal variations and corresponding microstructural alterations on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in areas of funduscopically visible drusen associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods Thirty eyes from 22 patients with geographic atrophy (GA) secondary to AMD (median age 74, range 64–87 years), who had undergone retinal imaging including color fundus photography (CFP), FAF and SD-OCT (Spectralis HRA+OCT; Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany) were retrospectively analyzed. In each eye, at least one druse (≥63 μm) in the perilesional zone of GA recorded on CFP was analyzed. Relative FAF intensities and alterations in ...

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    15. Swept source optical coherence tomography of the posterior vitreous after pars plana vitrectomy

      Swept source optical coherence tomography of the posterior vitreous after pars plana vitrectomy

      Dear Editor, Swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) visualizes deep structures such as the choroid, sclera, and most recently, the vitreous at the posterior pole [ 1 ]. With a light wavelength of 1050 nm and scanning speed of 100,000 Hz, SS-OCT has several advantages over spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT), including improved penetration through opacities, faster acquisition times while maintaining high-quality images, and a wider field than SD-OCT (12 mm vs. 6 mm) [ 2 – 4 ]. SS-OCT can provide helpful high-resolution imaging when looking at vitreous pathology [ 4 – 6 ]. Herein, we present two cases where SS-OCT was beneficial in evaluating the vitreous ...

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    16. The sensitivity and specificity of optical coherence tomography for the assisted diagnosis of non-pigmented basal cell carcinoma - an observational study

      The sensitivity and specificity of optical coherence tomography for the assisted diagnosis of non-pigmented basal cell carcinoma - an observational study

      Background The diagnostic criteria for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) have been described previously, but the clinical value of these findings has been unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of OCT for BCC in a typical clinical setting. The primary efficacy endpoint was a diagnosis of BCC for each lesion. Secondary endpoints were the diagnosis of other possible conditions. Methods This was an observational, prospective, multi-centre study in which consecutive patients with non-pigmented pink lesions suspicious for BCC underwent clinical assessment, dermoscopy, and OCT with the diagnosis recorded at ...

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    17. Optical Devices in Ophthalmology and Optometry: Technology, Design Principles and Clinical Application (Textbook)

      Optical Devices in Ophthalmology and Optometry: Technology, Design Principles and Clinical Application (Textbook)

      Medical technology is a fast growing field. This new title gives a comprehensive review of modern optical technologies alongside their clinical deployment. It bridges the technology and clinical domains and will be suitable in both technical and clinical environments. It introduces and develops basic physical methods (in optics, photonics, and metrology) and their applications in the design of optical systems for use in medical technology with a special focus on ophthalmology. Medical applications described in detail demonstrate the advantage of utilizing optical-photonic methods. Exercises and solutions for each chapter help understand and apply basic principles and methods. An associated website ...

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    18. OCT and Fundus Autofluorescence Enhances Visualization of White Dot Syndromes

      OCT and Fundus Autofluorescence Enhances Visualization of White Dot Syndromes

      Purpose: White dot syndromes (WDS) are a group of inflammatory conditions characterized by white lesions at the retina and choroid level. Detection and monitoring of these syndromes are currently hampered by the subtlety of these lesions, making them difficult to image using traditional clinical techniques. New imaging modalities such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) offer new opportunities for clinicians to noninvasively image WDS. Methods: A literature search was performed using a variety of WDS as the search terms. All articles from January 2004 to May 2014 were analyzed for clinical information regarding imaging of the diseases ...

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    19. High-speed En Face Optical Coherence Tomography Measurement System Developed

      High-speed En Face Optical Coherence Tomography Measurement System Developed

      A group of researchers led by OHMI Masato (Professor, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University) succeeded in developing a high-speed en face optical coherence tomography measurement system (en face OCT) that uses a function as optical deflector of crystals of potassium tantalate niobate (KTN). KTN crystal is expected to be used for optical deflectors and variable focusing lens developed by the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Public Corporation (NTT). This group paid attention to KTN's feature as a deflector capable of high-speed control of laser beam angle according to applied pressure. The group used that feature for OCT technology, and ...

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      Mentions: Osaka University
    20. Fibre-coupled multiphoton microscope with adaptive motion compensation

      Fibre-coupled multiphoton microscope with adaptive motion compensation

      To address the challenge of sample motion during in vivo imaging, we present a fibre-coupled multiphoton microscope with active axial motion compensation. The position of the sample surface is measured using optical coherence tomography and fed back to a piezo actuator that adjusts the axial location of the objective to compensate for sample motion. We characterise the system’s performance and demonstrate that it can compensate for axial sample velocities up to 700 µm/s. Finally we illustrate the impact of motion compensation when imaging multiphoton excited autofluorescence in ex vivo mouse skin.

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    21. Foveal Hypoplasia in Oculocutaneous Albinism and the Role of OCT

      Foveal Hypoplasia in Oculocutaneous Albinism and the Role of OCT

      We describe a case of a 16 year old girl with Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) who presented to us with photophobia and blurring of vision. She showed typical features of OCA, blonde hair, refractive error, iris transillumination and foveal hypoplasia. Our report highlights the role of macular OCT in diagnosis of foveal hypoplasia which is an essential feature of OCA.

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    22. Neointimal coverage and late apposition of everolimus-eluting bioresorbable scaffolds implanted in the acute phase of myocardial infarction: OCT data from the PRAGUE-19 study

      Neointimal coverage and late apposition of everolimus-eluting bioresorbable scaffolds implanted in the acute phase of myocardial infarction: OCT data from the PRAGUE-19 study

      Incomplete stent apposition and uncovered struts are associated with a higher risk of stent thrombosis. No data exist on the process of neointimal coverage and late apposition status of the bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) when implanted in the highly thrombogenic setting of ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction ( STEMI ). The aim of this study was to assess the serial changes in strut apposition and early neointimal coverage of the BVS using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in selected patients enrolled in the PRAGUE-19 study. Intracoronary OCT was performed in 50 patients at the end of primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute STEMI ...

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    23. Correlation Between Visual Function and Photoreceptor Integrity in Diabetic Macular Edema: Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Correlation Between Visual Function and Photoreceptor Integrity in Diabetic Macular Edema: Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose : To evaluate the relationship between visual function and (i) microstructural changes in the fovea of the inner segment-outer segment junction (IS/OS) and (ii) external limiting membrane (ELM) in diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods : We conducted a retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study of 40 DME patients (61 eyes), all of whom had been treated at Shanghai First People’s Hospital. Patients were divided into groups based on integrity of the IS/OS or ELM: IS/OS (+, ± and −) and ELM (+, ± and −). We performed best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), MP1 microperimetry and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) on all patients. Several variables, including ...

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