1. All Articles

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    1. Alterations of Hyaluronan Metabolism in Acute Coronary Syndrome: Implications for Plaque Erosion

      Alterations of Hyaluronan Metabolism in Acute Coronary Syndrome: Implications for Plaque Erosion

      Background Superficial erosion currently causes at least one-third of acute coronary syndromes (ACS), and its incidence is increasing. Yet, the underlying mechanisms in humans are still largely unknown. Objectives The authors sought to assess the role of hyaluronan (HA) metabolism in ACS. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected from ACS (n = 66), stable angina (SA) (n = 55), and control (CTRL) patients (n = 45). The authors evaluated: 1) gene expression of hyaluronidase 2 (HYAL2) (enzyme degrading high-molecular-weight HA to its proinflammatory 20-kDa isoform) and of CD44v1, CD44v4, and CD44v6 splicing variants of HA receptor; and 2) HYAL2 and CD44 protein ...

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      Mentions: Rocco Vergallo
    2. The vascular morphology of melanoma is related to Breslow index: an in vivo study with dynamic optical coherence tomography

      The vascular morphology of melanoma is related to Breslow index: an in vivo study with dynamic optical coherence tomography

      Background Malignant melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer, which can lead to metastasis development. Vascularization enhancement is fundamental for tumor growth, worsening the prognosis. Dynamic Optical Coherence Tomography (D‐OCT) enables the in vivo evaluation of vascular patterns in skin lesions. Objective In vivo evaluation of the melanoma vessel morphology by means of D‐OCT and correlation with Breslow index. Methods Retrospective analysis of histologically proven melanomas, evaluated by D‐OCT at three different depths (150, 300 and 500 μm) was performed. Vessels were classified according to morphology (dots, blobs, coiled, line, curved, serpiginous), distribution (regular, irregular), and presence/type ...

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    3. Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma (Textbook)

      Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma (Textbook)

      This book focuses on the practical aspects of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in glaucoma diagnostics offering important theoretical information along with many original cases. OCT is a non-invasive imaging technique that acquires high-resolution images of the ocular structures. It enables clinicians to detect glaucoma in the early stages and efficiently monitor the disease. Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma features updated information on technical applications of OCT in glaucoma, reviews recently published literature and provides clinical cases based on Cirrus and Spectralis OCT platforms. In addition, newer techniques like event and trend analyses for progression, macular ganglion cell analysis, and OCT ...

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    4. Aberration-diverse optical coherence tomography for suppression of multiple scattering and speckle

      Aberration-diverse optical coherence tomography for suppression of multiple scattering and speckle

      Multiple scattering is a major barrier that limits the optical imaging depth in scattering media. In order to alleviate this effect, we demonstrate aberration-diverse optical coherence tomography (AD-OCT), which exploits the phase correlation between the deterministic signals from single-scattered photons to suppress the random background caused by multiple scattering and speckle. AD-OCT illuminates the sample volume with diverse aberrated point spread functions, and computationally removes these intentionally applied aberrations. After accumulating 12 astigmatism-diverse OCT volumes, we show a 10 dB enhancement in signal-to-background ratio via a coherent average of reconstructed signals from a USAF target located 7.2 scattering mean ...

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    5. Schlemm's canal measured by optical coherence tomography and correlation study in a healthy Caucasian child population

      Schlemm's canal measured by optical coherence tomography and correlation study in a healthy Caucasian child population

      Purpose To measure the Schlemm's canal (SC) in vivo by Fourier‐domain optical coherence tomography (FD‐OCT) in a Caucasian paediatric population. Methods Participants of this cross‐sectional study were 290 healthy children. In the right eye of each child, SC cross‐sectional diameter and area measurements were made with the FD‐OCT instrument RTVue ® (Optovue Inc, Fremont, CA, USA) in the nasal and temporal quadrants. These SC variables were then assessed for correlation with the factors age, gender, refractive error, anterior chamber angle and trabecular meshwork (TM) metrics. Finally, the reproducibility of the SC measurements was assessed in ...

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      Mentions: Optovue
    6. Optical coherence tomography angiography and microvascular changes in diabetic retinopathy: a systematic review

      Optical coherence tomography angiography and microvascular changes in diabetic retinopathy: a systematic review

      To use optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) to evaluate foveal microvascular changes in diabetes by comparing the area of foveal avascular zone (FAZ) in healthy controls and patients with diabetes with no diabetic retinopathy (NDR) as well as different stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR). A systematic literature search was performed based on the population, intervention, comparison and outcome (PICO) strategy by two independent reviewers. The search was performed in PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library, including keywords ‘diabetes mellitus’, ‘DR’ and ‘OCTA’. Of 358 studies initially identified, 215 studies were screened after duplicate removal. Of these, we included 12 (nine cross ...

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    7. High-accuracy endoscopic microscopy using a thin, 1.5 mm diameter probe with optical coherence tomography

      High-accuracy endoscopic microscopy using a thin, 1.5 mm diameter probe with optical coherence tomography

      We developed an endoscopic microscopy system with 20 nm accuracy that affords inspection through narrow gaps using a thin, 1.5 mm diameter probe. Accuracy was improved using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). The frequency modulated light source is stabilized with closed control from self-interference measurement. The probe is driven by two miniature motors, which allow three-dimensional scanning of an internal surface. Imaging performance is 60 frames per second. The high accuracy with narrow clearance capabilities of this system reduces the need for machine overhauls, which affords trustworthy daily inspections and hence greater machine reliability.

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    8. A prospective case-control study comparing optical coherence tomography characteristics in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder- optic neuritis and idiopathic optic neuritis

      A prospective case-control study comparing optical coherence tomography characteristics in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder- optic neuritis and idiopathic optic neuritis

      Background Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder-optic neuritis (NMOSD-ON) can now be distinguished from other types of ON as a specific disease by the Aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-Ab) test. NMOSD-ON can cause severe retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) damage. The optical coherence tomography (OCT) characteristics between NMOSD- ON and idiopathic optic neuritis (IDON) were seldom studied in Asians. Methods This prospective case-control study involved 152 eyes from 143 optic neuritis (ON) patients. All the patients were divided into either the NMOSD-ON group or the IDON group based on the AQP4-Ab test. The retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT), retinal thickness (RT), and choroidal ...

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    9. Ultra-wide optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy

      Ultra-wide optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy

      Background: To implement an ultra-wide optical coherence tomography angiography imaging (UW-OCTA) modality in eyes with diabetic retinopathy (DR) with the aim of quantifying the burden of microvascular disease at baseline and subsequent clinic visits. Methods: UW-OCTA was implemented on a 1,060 nm swept source (SS) OCTA engine running at 100 kHz A-line rate with a motion tracking mechanism. A montage scanning protocol was used to capture a 100-degree field of view (FOV) using a 4×4 grid of sixteen total individual 6×6 mm 2 scans. Typical OCTA images with a FOV of 3×3, 6×6 and 12 ...

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    10. Joint Segmentation and Uncertainty Visualization of Retinal Layers in Optical Coherence Tomography Images using Bayesian Deep Learning

      Joint Segmentation and Uncertainty Visualization of Retinal Layers in Optical Coherence Tomography Images using Bayesian Deep Learning

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is commonly used to analyze retinal layers for assessment of ocular diseases. In this paper, we propose a method for retinal layer segmentation and quantification of uncertainty based on Bayesian deep learning. Our method not only performs end-to-end segmentation of retinal layers, but also gives the pixel wise uncertainty measure of the segmentation output. The generated uncertainty map can be used to identify erroneously segmented image regions which is useful in downstream analysis. We have validated our method on a dataset of 1487 images obtained from 15 subjects (OCT volumes) and compared it against the state-of-the-art ...

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    11. Predictive accuracy of partial coherence interferometry and swept-source optical coherence tomography for intraocular lens power calculation

      Predictive accuracy of partial coherence interferometry and swept-source optical coherence tomography for intraocular lens power calculation

      The purpose of this study is to compare the predictive accuracy of intraocular lens (IOL) calculations made with partial coherence interferometry (PCI, IOLMaster, version 5) and swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT, Argos). Axial length (AL), mean keratometry value (K), and anterior chamber depth (ACD) were obtained using PCI and SS-OCT optical biometers. Intraocular lens (IOL) power calculations were made using the Barret-Universal II, Haigis, Hoffer Q, SRK/T, and T2 formulas and compared the predictive accuracy between biometers. In 153 eyes (153 patients), axial length measurements made with PCI (24.65 ± 2.35 mm) and SS-OCT (24.62 ± 2.29 ...

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    12. Evaluation of Corneal Epithelial Thickness Imaged by the High Definition Optical Coherence Tomography in Healthy Eyes

      Evaluation of Corneal Epithelial Thickness Imaged by the High Definition Optical Coherence Tomography in Healthy Eyes

      Purpose: To evaluate corneal epithelial thickness (CET) and corneal thickness (CT) in healthy eyes using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Methods: Thirty-six healthy eyes were imaged using the Cirrus high-definition (HD)-optical coherence tomography device. The average CET and CT were assessed using Cirrus Review Software within predefined concentric corneal ring-shaped zones. Specific regions of CET (superior, inferior, temporal, nasal, superonasal, inferotemporal, superotemporal, and inferonasal) were also assessed. The difference between zones was compared between males and females. Results: The average CET was 48.3, 47.1, 46.1, and 45.8 μm in the 4 concentric zones (0–2 ...

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    13. Relationship between filtering bleb vascularization and surgical outcomes after trabeculectomy: an optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Relationship between filtering bleb vascularization and surgical outcomes after trabeculectomy: an optical coherence tomography angiography study

      Purpose To explore the relationship between the bleb vasculature and surgical outcome after trabeculectomy (TRAB) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). Methods A prospective study was conducted, which included 26 eyes of 26 primary glaucoma patients in the final analysis. Thereinto, six patients underwent TRAB combined 5-FU and 12 patients received subconjunctival 5-FU injection postoperation. The bleb vessel was evaluated using OCT-A 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after TRAB. Intraocular pressure (IOP), filtering bleb height, and bleb wall thickness were recorded at the same time. Pearson’s correlation analysis and linear regression analysis were ...

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    14. Bimodal imaging of proliferative diabetic retinopathy vascular features using swept source optical coherence tomography angiography

      Bimodal imaging of proliferative diabetic retinopathy vascular features using swept source optical coherence tomography angiography

      AIM : To categorize neovessels morphology and to detect response to anti-angiogenic therapy by using structural and angiographic modes of swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). METHODS : Thirty-two eyes with neovessels at disc (NVD) and neovessels elsewhere (NVE) - as diagnosed by fluorescein angiography- were included. Cross sectional OCT images of disc and macular regions were registered to enface OCT angiography (OCTA), B-scan blood flow over lay and density maps. Three eyes received anti-angiogenic treatment. RESULTS : Pin point registration of cross-sectional OCT and OCTA images differentiated active NVD with vascular elements from fibrous or equivalent fibrovascular elements. En face images delineated NVE ...

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    15. Anterior-Segment Optical Coherence Tomography and Scanning Electron Microscopy to Evaluate Corneal Epithelial Changes in Patients Undergoing Glaucoma Therapy

      Anterior-Segment Optical Coherence Tomography and Scanning Electron Microscopy to Evaluate Corneal Epithelial Changes in Patients Undergoing Glaucoma Therapy

      Purpose: To measure corneal epithelial thickness (CET) in patients with glaucoma using anterior-segment optical coherence tomography and to evaluate CET changes in relation to corneal epithelial microvilli analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods: Twenty-two eyes (16 patients) being treated with preservative-containing topical medications and 12 normal eyes underwent anterior-segment optical coherence tomography imaging using RTVue-100. The CET maps generated corresponded to a 6-mm diameter area of cornea that was divided into 17 sectors. We compared the CETs of each sector obtained in the glaucomatous group with those obtained in the control group. Results: Glaucomatous eyes were divided into 2 ...

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    16. En Face Imaging of Geographic Atrophy Using Different Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Scan Patterns

      En Face Imaging of Geographic Atrophy Using Different Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Scan Patterns

      Purpose Different swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) scan patterns were used to image geographic atrophy (GA) to determine if they provided similar area and enlargement measurements in eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Prospective, observational case series. Participants Patients with GA secondary to non-exudative AMD Methods Patients were imaged using SS-OCT (PLEX Elite 9000 instrument, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) with follow-up imaging performed after six months and one year. Both the 6x6 mm and 12x12 mm scan patterns were obtained at each visit. Area measurements of GA were performed on the en face images generated from a ...

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    17. Treatment Response in Sympathetic Ophthalmia as Assessed by Widefield OCT Angiography

      Treatment Response in Sympathetic Ophthalmia as Assessed by Widefield OCT Angiography

      The authors report the widefield montage swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) findings in a 36-year-old male with sympathetic ophthalmia and illustrate the presence of multiple small areas of choriocapillaris flow voids that likely correspond to areas of choriocapillaris ischemia. Using sequential imaging, the authors observed that these flow voids improved following initiating of steroid and immunosuppressive therapy and almost completely resolved following 6 months of therapy with corresponding improvement in visual acuity. This report highlights the role of widefield montage OCTA to detect these likely ischemic changes within the choriocapillaris in sympathetic ophthalmia and demonstrates that they can be ...

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      Mentions: Duke University
    18. Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy Imaged With Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy Imaged With Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

      The authors present a case of a 29-year-old man who presented to the Department of Ophthalmology at their institution to complete a peripheral laser treatment in his left eye for familial exudative vitreoretinopathy complicated by tractional macular edema.

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    19. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings in X-Linked Retinoschisis

      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings in X-Linked Retinoschisis

      BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) findings and to identify mutations in the RS1 gene in a three-generation family with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical and genetic assessments were performed in 12 family members. OCTA was performed at baseline (12 members including cases and carriers) and after acetazolamide administration (three cases). Twenty healthy subjects (20 eyes, controls) were chosen for comparison. Molecular genetic analysis of the RS1 gene was performed in all family members. RESULTS: Deep capillary plexus density was reduced in cases compared with controls ( P ...

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    20. The world at their feet

      The world at their feet

      As a summer intern at the private foundation Brain and Spine Institute (ICM) in Paris, Olivier Thouvenin helped develop an imaging technique for monitoring the neural circuitry in zebrafish larvae. But the method lacked the spatial resolution to tease apart connections between neurons at the single-cell level, which frustrated the young biophysics master’s student. So for his PhD at the Langevin Institute — two kilometres away on the edge of Paris’s famed Botanical Gardens — Thouvenin worked on improving an existing high-resolution tissue-imaging tool called full-field optical coherence tomography (OCT). He added a dynamic time element to the otherwise static ...

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    21. New Testing for Ovarian Cancer

      New Testing for Ovarian Cancer

      Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and multispectral fluorescence imaging (MFI) have demonstrated promising results in the early detection of ovarian cancer, as detailed in an abstract presented at the 12th Biennial Ovarian Cancer Research Symposium, held September 13–15 in Seattle. “There appear to be unique markers in the blood of ovarian cancer patients, months and years prior to diagnosis, and optical imaging techniques can distinguish [between] normal, cancer, and benign abnormalities [in] ovarian and fallopian tube tissue,” said presenter Jennifer K. Barton, PhD, professor of biomedical engineering at the University of Arizona in Tucson. Barton and colleagues are developing a ...

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    22. Functional retinal imaging using adaptive optics swept-source OCT at 1.6MHz

      Functional retinal imaging using adaptive optics swept-source OCT at 1.6MHz

      bjective optical assessment of photoreceptor function may permit earlier diagnosis of retinal disease than current methods such as perimetry, electrophysiology, and clinical imaging. In this work, we describe an adaptive optics (AO) optical coherence tomography (OCT) system designed to measure functional responses of single cones to visible stimuli. The OCT subsystem consisted of a raster-scanning Fourier-domain mode-locked laser that acquires A-scans at 1.64MHz with a center wavelength of 1063nm, and an AO subsystem providing diffraction-limited imaging. Analysis of serial volumetric images revealed phase changes of cone photoreceptors consistent with outer segment elongation and proportional to stimulus intensity, as well ...

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    23. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Corneal Epithelial Thickness Mapping with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Normal and Diseased Cornea Eyes

      Repeatability and Reproducibility of Corneal Epithelial Thickness Mapping with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Normal and Diseased Cornea Eyes

      Purpose To evaluate the performance of the epithelial thickness mapping (ETM) of the iVue spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) (Optovue Inc., Fremont, CA) in normal and diseased cornea eyes. Design Reliability and validity analysis. Methods Sixty eyes of 60 subjects were recruited for the study that included normal subjects (n=12) and patients with corneal diseases (12 each with dry eye syndrome (DES), contact lens (CL) wear, post laser refractive surgery (LRS), and keratoconus (KCN)). Three repeated scans were acquired on 3 iVue SD-OCTs with device-designated operators from consented subjects. Each subject was scanned on each device. Repeatability (based ...

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    24. Can preoperative anterior segment optical coherence tomography predict posterior capsule rupture during phacoemulsification in patients with posterior polar cataract?

      Can preoperative anterior segment optical coherence tomography predict posterior capsule rupture during phacoemulsification in patients with posterior polar cataract?

      Purpose To determine whether preoperative assessment of posterior capsule integrity using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) can predict posterior capsule dehiscence in patients with posterior polar cataract having phacoemulsification. Setting Aravind Eye Hospital and Postgraduate Institute of Ophthalmology, Pondicherry, India. Design Prospective observational study. Methods Patients with posterior polar cataract who had phacoemulsification between October 2012 and November 2013 were included in the study. Preoperative AS-OCT imaging was performed to assess the integrity of the posterior capsule. Anterior segment OCT images of the posterior capsule were graded as “intact” or “dehiscent.” Phacoemulsification was performed by the same surgeon who ...

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