1. Feature Of The Week: National Taiwan University Reports on Full-depth epidermis tomography using a Mirau-based full-field OCT

    All living things are made of cells. Most living organisms are single cells; others, such as human bodies, are vast multicellular cities with an aggregation of more than 10 billion cells. Non-invasive and high speed imaging of cells and tissues with sub-micron resolution could help unveil functions of living organisms, and facilitate disease/cancer diagnosis, new drug development, etc. Such an imaging modality is one of the key technologies to detect disease and cancer in the early stage so that the ever-escalating medical cost could be controlled. At the same time, biomedical discovery often originated from technology advancement. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can provide non-invasive tomographic images on living tissues without fluorescence markers. Recently, OCT has been applied for imaging a wide range of non-transparent tissues to perform in vivo imaging in human patients. The majority of studies have also suggested that OCT can be used to image both in vitro and in vivo tissues to identify regions that suggest abnormalities and should be biopsied for histopathological examination.

    Full-field OCT (FF-OCT) utilizing two-dimensional CCD camera has the opportunity to observe the layer structure of skin for both cross section and en face monitoring. In this study, we have developed a near-isotropic sub-micron-resolution OCT system to image human skin and cancer cell for both morphological recognition as well as parametric analysis, which not only provide three-dimensional in vivo cellular-resolution image but also are able to delineate subcellular structure (i.e., the nucleus). The number of layers of stratum corneum and it thickness were quantitatively measured. This label free and non-invasive optical probe could be useful for evaluating the water barrier of skin tissue in clinics. In an in vivo experiment, the micro blood vessels in dermis were also observed, and the flowing of the red blood cells were traced. Image analysis algorithms have also been developed to automatically extract deterministic information from live tissue and single cells. The OCT light source was diode laser pumped crystalline fibers. To achieve high brightness and broadband emissions from 400 nm to 1.6 μm, glass-clad crystal fibers were drawn by the laser-heated pedestal growth and cladded by various glass capillaries. These light sources are eminently suitable for FF-OCT because of their cw operation and near-Gaussian spectra. With a Gaussian spectrum, the ghost image is minimized, and the pristine specimen image can be recorded.

    To further facilitate the clinical realization of the imaging modality, flat field correction of the OCT en faces were compared with H&E stained histology sample with good agreement. With improved sensitivity/specificity, real-time data transmission and storage, and linking pathology to the treating physician, it is expected that the imaging advancement will eventually offer a see-and-treat paradigm, leading to improved patient care and medical expenditure reduction.

    For more information see recent Article. Courtesy of Sheng-Lung Huang from National Taiwan University. To share this article click Here.
  2. Recent Articles From Around The Web

    1. University of Maryland Receives NIH Grant for Monitoring Photo-Immunotherapy Using Multi-Channel Multi-Modal Imaging Needles

      University of Maryland Receives NIH Grant for Monitoring Photo-Immunotherapy Using Multi-Channel Multi-Modal Imaging Needles

      University of Maryland Receives a 2014 NIH Grant for $76,000 for Monitoring Photo-Immunotherapy Using Multi-Channel Multi-Modal Imaging Needles. The principal investigator is Yu Chen. The program began in 2014 and ends in 2016. Below is a summary of the proposed work. Photo-immunotherapy (PIT) is an emerging low-side-effect cancer therapy based on monoclonal antibody (mAb) conjugated with a near-infrared (NIR) phthalocyanine dye (IR700) that induces rapid cellular necrosis after exposure to near infrared light. Although single administration of the therapy (agent + light) was highly effective, recurrences were observed due to the inhomogeneous mAb-IR700 distribution in the tumor. Repeated therapy has ...

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    2. Extreme optical confinement in a slotted photonic crystal waveguide

      Extreme optical confinement in a slotted photonic crystal waveguide

      Using Optical Coherence Tomography, we measure the attenuation of slow light modes in slotted photonic crystal waveguides. When the group index is close to 20, the attenuation is below 300 dB cm −1 . Here, the optical confinement in the empty slot is very strong, corresponding to an ultra-small effective cross section of 0.02  μ m 2 . This is nearly 10 times below the diffraction limit at λ  = 1.5  μ m, and it enables an effective interaction with a very small volume of functionalized matter.

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    3. Optic Nerve Head Parameters in Healthy Turkish Population Using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Optic Nerve Head Parameters in Healthy Turkish Population Using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the optic nerve head (ONH) parameters in healthy Turkish population by using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Material and Method: The right eyes of 990 healthy subjects (660 female, 330 male, mean age: 60.96±14.70 years) were included in the study. Optic nerve head imaging was performed by using the spectral domain OCT (Cirrus HD-OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc, Dublin CA). Results: The mean optic disc area was 1.99±0.37 mm² (range,1.24-3.68 mm²), rim area 1.38±0.26 mm² (range, 0.00-2 ...

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    4. Ex-vivo multi-modal microscopy of healthy skin

      Ex-vivo multi-modal microscopy of healthy skin

      The thorough characterization of skin samples is a critical step in investigating dermatological diseases. The combination of depth-sensitive anatomical imaging with molecular imaging has the potential to provide vast information about the skin. In this proof-of-concept work we present high-resolution mosaic images of skin biopsies using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) manually co-registered with standard microscopy, bi-dimensional Raman spectral mapping and fluorescence imaging. A human breast skin sample, embedded in paraffin, was imaged with a swept-source OCT system at 1310 nm. Individual OCT volumes were acquired in fully automated fashion in order to obtain a large field-of-view at high resolution (~10 ...

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    5. Accelerated simulation of optical coherence tomography of objects with arbitrary spatial distributions

      Accelerated simulation of optical coherence tomography of objects with arbitrary spatial distributions

      We developed a highly parallel simulator of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) of objects with arbitrary spatial distributions. This Monte Carlo method based simulator models the object as a tetrahedron-based mesh, and implements an advanced importance sampling scheme. This new method makes OCT simulations more practical, since the corresponding serial Central Processing Unit (CPU) based implementation requires approximately 360 hours to simulate OCT imaging of a single B-scan. We implemented this new simulator on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) using the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) platform and programming model by NVIDIA. We demonstrated that our new simulator requires one order of ...

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    6. Effect of Angle of Incidence on Anterior Chamber Angle Metrics From Optical Coherence Tomography

      Effect of Angle of Incidence on Anterior Chamber Angle Metrics From Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: To evaluate the local variability of anterior chamber angle (ACA) metrics obtained by time domain (TD) and spectral domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT). Materials and Methods: Anterior-segment OCT imaging was performed on 30 normal eyes using Visante TD-OCT and 40 normal eyes using Cirrus SD-OCT. For Visante OCT, a single 16-mm line scan of the inferior angle with 3 slightly different rotations of 265, 270, and 275 degrees was performed. For Cirrus OCT, a 5-line raster of the inferior angle was performed, centering the third scan line at the 6 o'clock position, with 0.25 mm between ...

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    7. Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography in the Long-Term Follow-up and Detection of Glaucoma in Boston Type I Keratoprosthesis

      Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography in the Long-Term Follow-up and Detection of Glaucoma in Boston Type I Keratoprosthesis

      Purpose To evaluate the role of anterior segment (AS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a standardized method of imaging Boston type I keratoprosthesis (KPro) after surgery, particularly in the visualization of iris and angle structures. Design Prospective case series. Participants Twenty patients who underwent KPro implantation in 1 eye. Methods Patients underwent AS OCT imaging before surgery. After KPro implantation, patients were imaged using the AS single, dual, and quad scans to obtain transverse images of the eye every 15° over 360°. High-resolution, corneal quad, and anterior chamber scans were also obtained. This imaging protocol allowed juxtaposition and comparison of ...

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    8. Correlation and Agreement Between Cirrus HD-OCT "RNFL Thickness Map" and Scan Circle Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Measurements

      Correlation and Agreement Between Cirrus HD-OCT "RNFL Thickness Map" and Scan Circle Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Measurements

      Purpose: To evaluate the correlation and agreement between optical coherence tomography (Cirrus HD-OCT) retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness map and scan circle RNFL thickness measurements. Methods: ImageJ and custom Perl scripts were used to derive RNFL thickness measurements from RNFL thickness maps of optic disc scans of healthy and glaucomatous eyes. Average, quadrant, and clock-hour RNFL thickness of the map, and RNFL thickness of the areas inside/outside the scan circle were obtained. Correlation and agreement between RNFL thickness map and scan circle RNFL thickness measurements were evaluated using R2 and Bland-Altman plots, respectively. Results: A total of 104 ...

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    9. Reproducibility of Anterior Segment Angle Metrics Measurements Derived From Cirrus Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Reproducibility of Anterior Segment Angle Metrics Measurements Derived From Cirrus Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

      Purpose: To investigate the reproducibility of anterior segment angle (ACA) metrics measurements in normal subjects on Cirrus spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods: 40 eyes from 20 healthy, normal subjects underwent anterior segment imaging using a Cirrus SD-OCT. For each eye, 2 acquisitions of 5-line raster scans were performed perpendicularly on the inferior (270 degrees) angle. The Schwalbe's line-angle opening distance (SL-AOD) and Schwalbe's line-trabecular-iris space area (SL-TISA) measurements were performed by masked certified reading center graders using customized grading software. Intra-acquisition, intergrader, and intragrader reproducibility of SL-AOD and SL-TISA measurements were evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficients ...

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    10. Optical Coherence Tomography and Histopathology Assessment After Implantation of First- and Second-Generation Drug-Eluting Stents in a Porcine Coronary Model

      Optical Coherence Tomography and Histopathology Assessment After Implantation of First- and Second-Generation Drug-Eluting Stents in a Porcine Coronary Model

      Background: This study directly compared optical coherence tomography (OCT) and histopathology for the assessment of vascular response to first- and second-generation drug-eluting stents. Methods and Results: Sirolimus-, everolimus-, and biolimus-eluting stents (SES, EES, and BES, respectively) were randomly implanted into the coronary arteries of 12 porcine. OCT was conducted after implantation: at 1, 3, and 6 months; histopathology was assessed at 3 and 6 months. At 1-month OCT, EES had the highest neointimal area (NA) and lowest neointimal unevenness score (NUS). At 6 months, NA and NUS were equivalent among the stent types. ∆NA from 1 to 6 months was ...

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    11. A Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of Normal-Tension Glaucoma Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Parameters

      A Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of Normal-Tension Glaucoma Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Parameters

      Purpose: Normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) is a heterogenous disease, and there is still controversy about subclassifications of this disorder. On the basis of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), we subdivided NTG with hierarchical cluster analysis using optic nerve head (ONH) parameters and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses. Patients and Methods: A total of 200 eyes of 200 NTG patients between March 2011 and June 2012 underwent SD-OCT scans to measure ONH parameters and RNFL thicknesses. We classified NTG into homogenous subgroups based on these variables using a hierarchical cluster analysis, and compared clusters to evaluate diverse NTG characteristics. Results: Three ...

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    12. Dispersion compensation in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography

      Dispersion compensation in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography

      In this work, we propose a numerical technique to compensate for errors due to dispersion effects in Fourier domain optical coherence tomography. The proposed technique corrects for errors in depth measurements and resolution loss due to dispersion. The results show that, by using this technique, errors in thickness measurement are reduced from about 5% to less than 0.1% depending on the sample length and the amount of dispersion. Also, an improvement in the resolution from about 50 μm to less than 10 μm is demonstrated.

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    13. En face swept-source optical coherence tomography detecting thinning of inner retinal layers as an indicator of capillary nonperfusion

      En face swept-source optical coherence tomography detecting thinning of inner retinal layers as an indicator of capillary nonperfusion

      To report en face swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) as a noninvasive detection modality for regions of retinal layer thinning that are potential indicators of retinal nonperfusion areas (NPAs) in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Thirty-one eyes of 46 patients with BRVO showing a definite retinal NPA larger than 1 disc in diameter within the vascular arcades were included in this study. We calculated the overlapping correspondence ratio between presumed NPA, which appeared as a dark area in en face SS-OCT, and definite NPA in corresponding fluorescein angiography (FA) images. The correlation between brightness in en face SS-OCT ...

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    14. Automated 3-D Retinal Layer Segmentation of Macular Optical Coherence Tomography Images with Serous Pigment Epithelial Detachments

      Automated 3-D Retinal Layer Segmentation of Macular Optical Coherence Tomography Images with Serous Pigment Epithelial Detachments

      Automated retinal layer segmentation of optical coherence tomography (OCT) images has been successful for normal eyes but becomes challenging for eyes with retinal diseases if the retinal morphology experiences critical changes. We pro-pose a method to automatically segment the retinal layers in 3 - D OCT data with serous retinal pigment epithelial detachments (PED), which is a prominent feature of many chorioretinal disease processes. The proposed framework consists of the following steps: fast denoising and B-scan alignment, multi-resolution graph search based surface detection, PED region detection and surface correction above the PED region. The proposed technique was evaluated on a dataset ...

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    15. Detection of a Second Mesiobuccal Canal in Maxillary Molars by Swept-source Optical Coherence Tomography

      Detection of a Second Mesiobuccal Canal in Maxillary Molars by Swept-source Optical Coherence Tomography

      Introduction The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of swept-source optical coherence tomographic (SS-OCT) imaging to detect a second mesiobuccal canal (MB2) in maxillary molars compared with visual inspection (VI) and dental operating microscopy (DOM). Methods Forty extracted human maxillary molars were examined. After the removal of half the crown and access cavity preparation, the existence of MB2 canals was confirmed based on cross-sectional images of each tooth obtained by micro–computed tomographic scanning as the reference standard. Then, the pulp chamber floor was scanned by SS-OCT imaging. Three dentists independently evaluated the SS-OCT images and the ...

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    16. See all articles
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  4. OCT Companies in the News

    1. (5 articles) Carl Zeiss Meditec
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    6. (1 articles) Optovue
    7. (1 articles) InfraReDx
    8. (1 articles) St. Jude Medical
    9. (1 articles) Bioptigen
    10. (1 articles) Axsun Technologies
  5. OCT Products in the News

    1. (5 articles) Zeiss Cirrus HD-OCT
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    3. (2 articles) LLTech Light-CT Scanner
    4. (1 articles) Zeiss Visante OCT
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    Pediatric Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders: Advances in imaging and computational modeling. Probing biological nanotopology via diffusion of weakly constrained plasmonic nanorods with optical coherence tomography Endoscopy for diagnosis and treatment in esophageal cancers: high-technology assessment Rescuing US biomedical research from its systemic flaws Glenn vs. The Volcano Bioptigen to Receive Grants Totaling $1.72 Million  from the National Eye Institute for Development of Intraoperative SD-OCT Engaged Capital Sends Letter to the Board of Volcano Corporation Quantitative technique for robust and noise-tolerant speed measurements based on speckle decorrelation in optical coherence tomography In-situ biofilm characterization in membrane systems using Optical Coherence Tomography: Formation, structure, detachment and impact of flux change A feasibility study of full-field optical coherence tomography for rapid evaluation of EUS-guided microbiopsy specimens Hybrid single-source online Fourier transform coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering/optical coherence tomography Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography of Human Donor and Pathological Corneas
  7. Recent Quotes

    1. Orion is our flagship product targeted at reading centers burdened with the laborious task of manual segmentation, CROs running clinical trials lacking relevant imaging-based biomarkers, and clinical researchers overwhelmed by data and hamstrung by the limited image analysis tools available...It is the most advanced OCT analysis software package available today, and our road map is comprehensive, including change analysis in the next release.
      By Jonathan D. Oakley
    2. As the interventional cardiology landscape has shifted to the treatment of more complex patients, intravascular imaging and fractional flow reserve have emerged as critical tools for enabling physicians to make more informed treatment decisions during PCI... “By integrating these tools directly into cath lab infrastructure, we can enhance access to technology and have them readily available during PCI procedures.
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      By Shiv Saidha
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      By Yingtian Pan
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    10. With respect to the planned Axsun divestiture, this decision was driven by our long-term strategy to focus on coronary imaging and physiology leadership, peripheral expansion, profitability and business scale. The Axsun business and financial model is no longer a strategic fit with Volcano. We greatly appreciate the significant contributions of the Axsun team to Volcano over the past several years.
      By Scott Huennekens